Right now, two main things:
1-An ethnic/religious conflict. As the few Sunnis in the ruling regime defect, it is resolving into a straight Alawi versus Sunni war.
2-A proxy war. Iran is helping the Alawi regime and Saudi Arabia and Turkey (plus some Western countries) are assisting the Sunni rebels.
This is not going to end happily.
Thinking about the longer term future raises the question: is it feasible to separate the main groups (Alawi, Christian, Sunni, Kurd) into their own autonomous or independent regions?